With the gradual improvement of the luminous efficiency of the light emitting diode, LED has the possibility to be used for lighting. In addition, LED has many advantages such as long service life, environmental protection, energy saving, good color rendering, short response time, shock resistance, etc., and the realization of semiconductor lighting has become the goal for people to strive for. The use of LED lighting can create a variety of very beautiful appearance and lighting shapes, and its potential market is very large. Luminous bodies can not only change their appearance and shapes, but also create a variety of lighting effects to show people beautiful and various lighting shapes, which cannot be realized by traditional lighting and ordinary LED lamps. LED lighting has developed rapidly, such as “dream small three Gorges” in Wushan of Chongqing, LED light bulbs illuminating the Huangpu river bank at the opening ceremony of the Shanghai world Expo, Foshan’s intention to build a capital of LED lighting …
1. Definition of LED Lighting
LED lighting is a brand-new lighting product. It is a major type of lighting and is a lighting product with LED as light source. Lighting is the eyes of the family. If there is no lighting in the family, it is like people have no eyes. Families without eyes can only live in the dark. Therefore, the position of lights in the family is very important.
2. Characteristics of LED Lighting
The luminous components of LED lighting are made into transparent sheets of various shapes, and a plurality of micro LEDs are packaged inside the sheet-type luminous bodies: for different lamps, local shapes of various parts of the transparent sheets can also be various, for example, the surfaces of the luminous bodies are treated differently: some are made into smooth surfaces, some are made into frosted glass effect surfaces, some are made into ridges, grooves, pits, bags and other shapes of various three-dimensional shapes, and some are coated with reflective films and the like. The back of some reflective films is also connected with a layer of composite material, which consists of lead wires, structural members, resin or cement, gypsum, etc.
3. Principle of LED Lighting
A plurality of micro LEDs inside the sheet-type luminous body emit light towards the inside of the sheet, and the light is transmitted, diffused and mixed in the whole interior formed on smooth surfaces on both sides of the luminous body. Through or through the special design of the local shape of the luminous body, the transmission and diffusion of the light inside the sheet-type luminous body are damaged, and the direction of the light advancing is changed, so that the light can be scattered out at the designed part of the sheet-type luminous body according to the designed mode, thereby forming various effects. For example, most of the light emitted by the micro LED can be scattered from one side through the reflective film on one side surface and the pattern recessed into the sheet on this side, thus forming the effect that the internal pattern emits light to one side. Sheet-type illuminants have a variety of artistic lighting effects by emitting light around, to an area, to emit soft diffuse light, to emit bright and bright light, etc.
4. LED lighting has the following advantages
1. Multi-change: LED light source can make use of the principle that LED emits no afterglow and three primary colors of red, green and blue at the instant of current, and adopts LED display screen control technology to realize multi-change of color and pattern. It is a “dynamic light source” that can be controlled at will.
2. High energy saving: DC drive, ultra-low power consumption (single tube 0.03-0.06W) electro-optic power up to more than 90%, and the same lighting effect saves more than 80% of energy than traditional light sources.
3. Long service life: LED is a solid cold light source, which is encapsulated by epoxy resin, so it has no defects such as easy burning and thermal deposition of filament. The working voltage is low, and the service life can reach 50,000 to 100,000 hours, which is more than 5 times longer than that of the traditional light source.
4. Environmental protection: cold light source, small glare, no radiation, no mercury-containing elements, and no harmful substances during use.
5. New technology: Compared with traditional light sources, LED light sources integrate innovative technologies such as computers, networks, embedded controls, etc., and have the characteristics of online programmability, unlimited upgrade, and flexibility in driving circuits.
5. Types of LED Lighting
1. Surface-emitting LED lighting. The simplest type of lighting is planar and can be installed on ceilings, walls or the ground. This kind of lighting can also be spliced by a plurality of small LED lighting to form a large luminous area. It can be predicted that the mainstream LED lighting will not adopt this structure in the future. If the LED lighting is still the structure and principle of the traditional lighting, then the lighting will not only have low luminous efficiency, but also the lighting mode will look old and single. In terms of appearance modeling, lighting modeling, diversity of lighting effects and lamp efficiency, the LED lighting made of various sheet-type illuminants is also far less excellent, so this structure is not suitable for LED lighting.
2. Lamps and lanterns are no longer composed of bulbs, lamp holders and lampshades, but have become beautiful sheets, which can be combined with various decorative and structural parts to form lamps of different sizes, styles and series. Different appearance shapes are matched with different lighting effects and different lighting shapes to form ever-changing lamp varieties, which can be suitable for people to pursue different effects and can bring more comfort and warmth to people with different hobbies. This kind of LED lighting series has the most varieties and is the most abundant, which can replace traditional chandeliers, ceiling lamps, wall lamps and other lighting.
3. A lot of sheet-shaped luminous bodies are hung or attached to the surfaces or frames of various modeling objects, and can also be made into outdoor lighting of various modeling such as birds, flowers, animals, sculptures, landscapes and the like for outdoor lighting, environment beautification, advertisement and the like. Luminous bodies not only have ever-changing appearance and shapes, but also can create a variety of lighting effects to show people beautiful and various lighting shapes, which cannot be realized by traditional lighting and ordinary LED lamps. Through digital intelligent control, these combinations can realize various changes such as tumbling, flickering and running like large colored lights.
6. Application of LED Lighting
The configuration of living room lamps should be conducive to creating a stable, generous, warm and warm environment, making guests feel at home. Generally, a single-headed or multi-headed pendant lamp can be installed in the center of the room as the main lamp. If banner calligraphy and painting are hung on the back wall of the sofa, two wall lamps of appropriate size can be installed on both sides of the calligraphy and painting, and a floor lamp can be placed on the side of the sofa. This kind of lighting arrangement is not only stable and generous, but also can choose light sources according to different needs. It can be used for lighting at the beginning, brightening the whole room, or it can be used by single lamp alone, which makes people talk about the past.
The study is a place for family members to work and study and requires high lighting. For general work and study lighting, local lighting lamps can be used, with incandescent lamps with higher power being preferred. The main lighting can be either single-fork chandelier or fluorescent lamp, and the location is not necessarily in the center, but can be determined according to the specific indoor conditions. The shape and style of the lamps should not be too luxuriant. Elegance and elegance are better, creating a quiet and tranquil comfortable environment for people to read.
A simple bedroom is a place for people to sleep and rest. It should give people a quiet and leisurely feeling and avoid dazzling light lines and dazzling lamp shapes. A hanging main lamp can be installed at an appropriate position in the room, and a bedside wall lamp can be installed at the head of the bed. If the bedroom is used for multiple purposes, a ceiling-mounted fluorescent lamp can be installed in the center of the room, and two wall lamps can be installed at the places where illuminance needs to be increased. These lamps are controlled by switches respectively to meet different needs. Restaurants are places where people eat. The dining table requires horizontal illuminance. Therefore, it is appropriate to choose lamps that are strongly irradiated directly downwards or pull-down lamps so that the pull-down height is 600-700mm above the table. The lamps are generally located directly above the dining table. In order to increase appetite, incandescent lamps with a capacity of more than 60W are used. Sometimes restaurants also have other functions, so multiple sockets are needed to serve as power supplies for desk lamps and floor lamps.
Kitchen is a place for cooking and washing tableware. Generally, the area is small. Most of them use general lighting on the ceiling, with a capacity of 25-40 watts. Modern kitchens are equipped with range hoods above the cooking range, usually with 25-40 watts of lighting, which greatly improves the illuminance above the cooking range. Modern kitchens also have many cabinets above the cooking ranges for cutting vegetables and preparing meals. Local lighting lamps can be installed under these cabinets to increase the illuminance of the operating table.
Toilet should use bright and soft lamps, lamps should have moistureproof and not easy to rust function, the light source should use incandescent lamp with high color rendering index. When wall lamps are used, the lamps should be installed on the wall surface perpendicular to the curtain, so as not to reflect shadows on the window. When using dome light, avoid installing it on the bathtub directly covered by steam. The power of wall lamp or ceiling lamp should be 40-60W.
7. Development Bottleneck and Countermeasures of LED Lighting
At the same time of the popularization of LED lamps, there are many worrying problems, mainly manifested in the following points:
1. No industry standard: LED is a new thing. All manufacturers develop various products according to market needs. More standard enterprises design circuits according to the characteristics of LED. The product quality is relatively stable, but many enterprises are eager for quick success and instant benefits. As long as LED products can be lit, LED lamps cannot reach their nominal service life.
2. No core technology: At present, most LED chips come from the United States and Japan, and the updating of products and technological upgrading are subject to human control.
3. Lack of supporting components: LED is applied to the light source of lamps and lanterns, and corresponding electronic components are required to drive and control. However, at present, the development of related components lags behind the development of LED lamps, so that enterprises can only adopt some unreliable schemes in product design, resulting in unstable quality of LED lamps.
4. Market malformation: LED lamps are mainly engineering lamps. Due to their professionalism, it is difficult for ordinary people to distinguish their quality. However, engineers often use inferior quality lamps to obtain the highest profit, thus damaging the image of LED lamps. Responsible businessmen and manufacturers should consciously safeguard the healthy development of semiconductor lighting industry.
Although in the field of LED decoration, LED has characteristics that cannot be replaced by other materials and has been basically recognized. However, in the field of LED general lighting, although the industry is full of expectations, the final consumer market is still at an initial stage, especially for the general consumer, it will take a long time for LED lamps to enter thousands of households. The price factor will become a primary bottleneck for domestic consumption. At present, for MR16 spotlights, the final price in the hands of consumers will be more than RMB100 based on the current cost, while the price of an ordinary MR16 halogen lamp is only about RMB 8 yuan. If the price cannot be reduced to within 2-3 times of that of traditional lighting, this substitution will probably be difficult to realize. However, China is still in an era of extensive economy and its awareness of energy conservation and environmental protection is still very weak.
However, if you want to have a significant drop in costs, you first need a major breakthrough in technology.
1) Further improve the luminous efficiency of high-power LED and reduce the number of light emitting sources to reduce the cost.
2) Looking for new ways to dissipate heat. At present, aluminum alloy is mostly used for heat dissipation, which is very costly. Moreover, the higher the luminous efficiency in the future, the higher the cost of heat dissipation components will be.
3) LED optical lenses are produced by only a few manufacturers due to the secrecy of the industry technology, which makes the price still high.
Therefore, the fate of LED lighting manufacturers can be said to be in the hands of their upstream material suppliers. Although some people expect 2 -3 -5 years, we can see that there are opportunities. But what we need to think about is: when is the best time to enter the domestic market? How can we stand out from the numerous manufacturers? How can we differentiate our products to avoid pure price competition? Is our technical strength reflected in the shape design or electronic design? How to find a heat dissipation solution that is economical and beautiful?
Where are the other breakthroughs?
1. Refinement of lighting and the resulting civilian trend and the development of supporting patch elements and lamp beads.
2, high-power lamps and lanterns;
3. Expanding the use of the industry;
4. LED lighting.
These are the four directions in the future. In the process of further development in these directions, there will inevitably be improvement of brands, channels, and featured products, accompanied by standardized management.
The 21st century will be a century with solid luminescent materials as the core, that is, new and green lighting sources represented by LED. In the future, with the progress and improvement of light emitting diode manufacturing technology, the luminous intensity and stability of LED will be greatly improved. It is believed that in the 21st century, LED-based lighting and lighting products will inevitably replace ordinary lighting sources and become another revolution in the history of human lighting.
Original Essay，author：AC LIGHT，if repost this，please make references：https://www.lightings.top/led-market-analysis/